speak spoke spoken (講話)
read read read (閱讀)
cut cut cut (切)
cost cost cost (花費)
go went gone (去,走)
feel felt felt (感覺)
dig dug dug (挖)
overcome overcame overcome (克服)
come came come (來)
write wrote written (寫)
get got gotten (自己查一下,這個詞要看用在那里了)
see saw seen (看)
spend spent spent (花費)
put put put (放下)
find fought fought (找,查明)
deal dealt dealt (分配)
bend bent bent (使…變曲)
fight fought fought (搏斗,奮斗)
keep kept kept (留下,保留,繼續)
lay laid lain (放置,躺下,保留)
lend lent lent (借出,借給)
lose lost lost(失去,喪失)
sit sat sat (坐,就坐)
sleep slept slept(睡覺,睡著)


除系動詞、連系動詞、情態動詞外,其余動詞都屬于實義動詞。如:go,come,surrender,kill,save,waste, find,lose,see,watch,get, reach,walk,run, swim, play, sleep, explore,advance, pull,drag,study,surf, start,miss, thank,like,cry, bring,take,smile,record,kidnap,answer,ask,work,stay,leave,want, visit,show,have,marry,devorce,defend,depend,live,stand,sit,sell,buy,fire,dimiss,steal,build,happen,speak,tell,talk,wish,hope,do,wash,place,expand,increase,reduce,evaluate,accumulate,declare,announce,cross,fly,drive,dive,ski,love,diminish,discharge,elect,refuse,understand,adapt,use,send,begin,remember,forget,dream,hurt,grow,listen ,hear,guess,fall,help,argue,quarrel,rise,raise等等。



及物動詞 vt. 后面必須跟賓語
常見及物動詞有:afford,allow,blame,bring,contain,deny,enjoy,examine,excuse,fetch,fix,get,greet interest,worry,guss,please,surprise,love等
例: I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion.我相信委員會將會考慮我們的建議。(consider作及物動詞)
Dr. Bethune set us a good example. 白求恩大夫給我們樹立了好榜樣。(set作及物動詞)
Crude oil contains many useful substances.原油含有許多有用的物質。(contain作及物動詞)

不及物動詞 vi. 后面不用接賓語
常見的不及物動詞有:appear come go get fall feel keep look make prove remain rest rise seem stand stay turn die等
例:Birds fly.鳥會飛。
  It happened in June 1932.這件事發生于一九三二年六月。
  My watch stopped.我的表停了。
  She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的會上發了言。

  Shall I begin at once?我可以立刻開始嗎?(begin作不及物動詞)
  She began working as a librarian after she left school.她畢業后當圖書館管理員。(began作及物動詞)
  When did they leave Chicago?他們是什么時候離開芝加哥的?(leave 作及物動詞)
  They left last week. 他們是上周離開的。(left 作不及物動詞)

  Wash your hands before meals.飯前要洗手。
  Does this cloth wash well? 這布經得起洗嗎?

另外,與漢語的比較 有時英語動詞的及物和不及物的用法,與漢語的用法完全不一樣,請注意下列兩種情況:
  We arrived at the railway station at noon.我們于中午到達火車站。(at不能省去)(比較:We reached the railway station at noon.)
  Everybody listened to the lecture with great interest.每個人都很有興趣地聽講課。(to不可省去)(比較:We all heard the lecture.)
  Do they agree to the plan?他們同意這個計劃嗎?(to不可以省去)
  Our children are taught to serve the people wholeheartedly.我們的兒童被教以全心全意為人民服務


后面必須跟賓語意義才完整的實義動詞,叫做及物動詞(transitive verb)。如:
I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion.我相信委員會將會考慮我們的建議。
“How long can I keep the book ?”Harry asked.哈里問:“這本書我可以借多久?”
Dr. Bethune set us a good example. 白求恩大夫給我們樹立了好榜樣。
Crude oil contains many useful substances.原油含有許多有用的物質。

本身意義完整后面不須跟賓語的實義動詞,叫做不及物動詞(intransitive verb)。如:
Birds fly.鳥會飛。
It happened in June 1932.這件事發生于一九三二年六月。
My watch stopped.我的表停了。
She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的會上發了言。


第三節 實義動詞(及物動詞&不及物動詞)實義動詞的定義:是指具有完整意義的動詞。可以單獨作謂語,主要表示主語的動作、狀態和品質。實義動詞主要包括及物動詞和不及物動詞兩類。一、及物動詞及物動詞的定義:能跟賓語的動詞稱為及物動詞。及物動詞分為三類:a、跟單賓語的及物動詞。b、跟雙賓語的及物動詞。c、跟復合結構的及物動詞。① 常見的之跟“單賓語”的及物動詞accept 接受 borrow 借 bury 埋 put 放 cover 覆蓋 defeat 挫敗 discover 發現 enjoy 喜歡 forget 忘記 guess 猜 love 熱愛 use 運用excite 使…..激動 interest 使……..感興趣 please 使……..高興worry 使……擔心/煩惱 surprise 使……驚訝 I enjoy talking to you. 我喜歡和你談話。Please accept this small gift。 請接受這個小禮物。Don’t forget to wake me up at six tomorrow morning. 別忘了明天早晨六點叫醒我。You can borrow one book at a time from the library. 在圖書館一次只能借一本書。② 常見的之跟“雙賓語”的及物動詞A.指人的間接賓語在指物的直接賓語后面需加to的動詞:bring 帶來 give 給 hand 遞 pass 遞 pay 付款 promise 答應 read 讀 return 返還 sell賣 show 表現teach 教 tell 告訴 wish 祝愿 offer 提供 post 寄I returned him the money. (可改為:I returned the money to him) 我把錢還給他了。Please pass me the tea. (可改為:please pass the tea to me) 請把茶遞給我。 Can you teach me how to say this in English? 你能教我這個用英語怎么說嗎?可改為:_________________________________________________________ B.指人的間接賓語在指物的直接賓語后需加for的動詞:buy 買 choose 選擇 draw 畫find 發現 keep 保持 make 使order 點菜 paint 油漆 save 救護I’ll find you another table. (可改為:I’ll find another table for you.)我會再給你找張桌子。Crazy English saves me a lot of time. 瘋狂英語節省了我很多時間。可改為:__________________________________________________________C.指人的間接賓語在指物的直接賓語后既可加to也可加for的動詞:do 做 play 表演 read 讀get 得到 sing 唱歌 bring 帶來I’ll get you some tea. (可改為:I’ll get some tea for/to you.) 我給你到點茶。I want to sing you a song. 我想給你唱首歌(可改為:_____________________________________________________)③常見的跟賓語補足語的及物動詞在英語中有些動詞只給一個賓語意義不完整,賓語后必須再加上一個成分(賓語補足語),其意義方可完整。賓語補足語簡稱:“賓補”(Object Complement),用于表示賓語所做的動作或說明賓語的狀態、特性、身份等。賓補可由名詞、形容詞、動詞不定式、V-ing 形式、V-ed 形式或介詞短語等形式擔任,一般置于賓語后。A.可跟”形容詞或形容詞短語”作賓補的動詞有:believe 相信 drive 驅趕;使 find 發現 get 使 keep 使保持 leave 留下 make 使 push 推 set 使 consider 認為 cut 切 dye 染 declare 宣布 imagine 想象 judge 判斷 paint 漆We all believe him honest and kind. 我們都相信它誠實、善良。You’re driving me crazy. 你快把我搞瘋了。I want to paint the house white. 我想把房子漆成白色。B.可跟“名詞短語”作賓補的動詞有:call 叫 name 命名 make 使變 wish 祝愿 keep 使 find 找到 choose 選擇 elect 選舉 consider 認為 We consider him a strange person. 我們認為他是一個奇怪的人C.可跟“帶to不定式結構”作賓補的動詞有:advise 建議 allow 允許 ask 要求 expect 期望 invite 邀請 get 使 order 命令 tell 告訴 teach 教 wish 希望 warn 警告Mother often tells me to make friends carefully. 媽媽經常告誡我交朋友要謹慎。My doctor advised me to exercise more. 我的醫生建議我多運動。I want everyone in China to speak good English. 我想讓每個中國人都講一口棒的英語D.可跟“to be+名詞或形容”作賓補的動詞(這些結構中的to be 也可省略)believe 認為 consider認為 feel 感覺 understand理解 imagine 想象know 知道 suppose 猜測 find 發現 prove 證明 declare 宣布I believe what you said to be true. 我相信你說的是真的。I consider him to be a great teacher. 我認為她是一個偉大的老師。E.可跟不帶to的不定式作賓補的動詞有:have 使 make 使 let 讓 see 看見 notice 注意 feel 感覺watch 注意看 look at 看 listen to 聽 observe 觀察 discover 發現【注意】以上動詞在變為被動結構時,必須加to,不定式此時作主語的補足語。What made you think of that? 什么使你想起了那件事?Paul doesn’t have to be made to study.【變為被動時需加上to】保羅不必被逼著學習。F.可用“V-ing”形式作賓補的動詞有:see 看見 hear 聽見 keep 使 catch 抓住 find 發現 have 讓 watch 注意看 smell 聞到 look at 看listen to 聽 observe 觀察 discover 發現 get 使 have 使Can you hear someone playing the piano next door? 你能聽見隔壁有人彈鋼琴嗎?The boy was last seen playing by the riverside. 人們最后一次看見這小男孩時他在河邊玩玩。【變成被動時V-ing 形式作主語補足語】 G.可跟“V-ed形式”作賓補的動詞有:have 使 get 使 make 使 find 發現 feel 感覺see 看見 hear 聽見 think 認為 watch 注意看I couldn’t make myself heard by all the listeners. 我無法使所有聽眾都能聽見我。 I can’t make myself understood in English. 別人聽不懂我的英語。 He had his arm broken. 他的手臂摔斷了。 Have you ever heard the song sung on Cantonese? 你聽過這首歌的粵語版嗎?H.可跟“as/for等引起的介詞短語”作賓補的動詞regard 看做 treat 對待consider認為 choose選為use 當作……用 keep把……當作You can keep this book as your own. 你可以留著這本書自己用。She is considered to be/as the best dancer. 她被認為是最好的舞蹈演員。I.可跟“副詞”作賓補的動詞有:ask 叫、讓 get 使 find 發現 let 讓 drive 開車送 show 領 see 看見 invite 邀請 order 命令Can I ask Bob in? 我可以讓鮑勃進來嗎?Show the visitor in, please. 請把客人帶進來。J.可跟“介詞短語”作賓補的動詞有:have 使 get 使 make 使 find 發現 feel 感覺 see 看見 hear 聽見 notice 注意到 keep 保持Don’t have children at home all day. Give them time to play outdoors.不要讓孩子老呆在家里,給他們出外玩耍的時間。






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